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南湾议员提出技术移民改革方案,迎合川普方针


朝霞    02/05     675    
4.0/1 

【H-1B、F-1、家庭移民改革 - 草案懒人包】总结如下:1)F-1签证可有移民倾向,旅游回美不受拒签!2)保护本地工人:H-1B的“免审工资”水平大幅提高到全国平均工资135%,高科技行业的指标是约13万年薪,即可获免审的H-1B。3)要审批的H-1B个案,审定的关口在于工资的算法和工资水平,总的来说,工资越高越容易获得签证。4)保护外劳:H-1B员工工作3年后雇主必须开始帮报绿卡,而且不许惩罚未够期就解约的H-1B员工。5)H-1B取消原居国的配额限制,各国同等轮候。6)取消每年6万5配额,只要合格即可发签证。真正的人才,一定能留下。7)另,家庭移民配额从7%升至15%。

这些proposed的改革都利好华人学生、硅工码女,甚至合法的家庭移民。




管理南湾圣荷西、Morgan Hill、Gilroy等硅谷心脏地带的民主党联邦女众议员Zoe Lofgren,率先推出改革技术移民的方案,主要打击H-1B的技术签证被外包公司大规模滥用,把高薪的工作机会输出外国的现象,这些滥用造成了取代本地技术工作者的负面影响。这个方案里的措施和时机,迎合了川普总统要求的“保障本地工作机会”的方针,有望成为现实。





这位民主党国会议员,其主要的两个动议是:反对总统严查中东移民和难民的措施,和(支持总统的方针)控制高科技产业的外流。既批判总统也与他合作。赞就事论事!



由于本地华人对高科技移民改革的重视,和各种不同版本的理解产生,在此提供我的简易翻译和解读。但鉴于这只是立法的草稿,估计还需要若干个月和众多修改才能实施。如果您不满意其中的条款,应该发动民众到其网站提出意见。如果有几百甚至一千封email重复同样的修改意见,估计有可能被接纳。请到https://lofgren.house.gov/contact/ 提出意见。





Zoe Lofgren的「2017年高科技正义性和公平性法案」。以上是其法案的目的 - “curbing H-1B outsourcing abuse”。

以下是其英文懒人包:https://lofgren.house.gov/uploadedfiles/high_skilled_bill_sxs_and_analysis_-1-2017__final.pdf。(嫌自己英文不够好的可以开小灶阅读以下法律全文: https://lofgren.house.gov/uploadedfiles/high_skilled_bill_text.pdf

注解




“SECTION 2. NUMERICAL LIMITATION TO ANY SINGLE FOREIGN STATE
 Eliminates the “per country” cap for employment-based immigrant visas so that all workers are treated fairly. o Ends discrimination in allocation of employment-based visas so employers can hire the most skilled
workers without regard to national origin.
o Ensures that all employment-based immigrants are subject to the same wait times for visas.
 Raises the “per country” cap from 7% to 15% for family-sponsored immigrant visas.”



以上说:1)撤除 就业移民类别 基于“per country”(原居住国)的签证配额,让雇主能根据最合格的人选而招聘技术移民,而无需考虑其原住国的配额限制。2)确保所有的就业签证的排期是等同的。3)家属移民的“原住国” 配额从现在的7%翻倍到15%。

解读:就业签证人人平等,只要够资格就可以进来。这对于现在就爆满的印度裔和华裔的技术移民大大有利。另外,家庭移民的配额保持按原居住国分类,并把配额翻倍。这对于墨西哥和中国的合法亲属移民有利。

“SECTION. 3. STRENGTHENING INTEGRITY IN THE H-1B PROGRAM BY REFORMING THE
EXEMPT H-1B DEFINITION
 Re-sets the current dependent wage exemption level of $60,000 which was established in 1998 and has since remained unchanged.
 The new H-1B dependent employer wage exemption level will be set at 35 percentile points above the median for the most recent national annual wage for Computer and Mathematical Occupations (Group 15-0000) as published in the Department of Labor (DOL) Occupational Employment Statistics (OES).
 Per the Department of Labor May 2015 Occupational Employment and Wages (the most recent data available), the new annual wage exemption level would be greater than $130,000 (http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes150000.htm).
 Dependent employers are those with more than 15% of their workforce in H-1B status.
 Unless dependent employers compensate their H-1B workers above the required wage level, they must make
attestations regarding recruitment and non-displacement of U.S. workers.
 Non-discretionary bonuses and similar compensation may be applied to wages based on their fair market
value at the time of filing. No discretionary compensation may be counted towards wages.
 Eliminates the Master’s Degree exemption for dependent employers.”



以上说要改革“免审H-1B”的定义,并狠狠地砍「H-1B签证依赖性雇主」:1)「H-1B签证依赖性雇主」是指其雇员人口中有15%或以上是拿H-1B签证的员工。2)如果雇主是「H-1B签证依赖性雇主」,但支付的技术移民员工的工资水平超过全国(不是本地)数理工程的平均工资的135%,即约$130,000, 那么这些H-1B签证可以免审。否则还是可以通过正常的审批手续申报H1B。3)1998年硬性定下来的的免審工资水平$60,000太低,要升到全國数理工科工资水平的35%以上,即$130,000. 4) 正常的奖金和其他(人人都有的)报酬可以作为工资计算的一部分,非正常的奖金不可以当作计算的一部分。5)砍掉「H-1B签证依赖性雇主」的 “硕士学位 免审”的自动豁免。

解读:前十名H-1B签证的最高得奖雇主(基本都是外包公司)将全部受到严格的规管,必须大幅提高这些技术移民的工资和报酬。但如果贵公司的H-1B签证不超过员工数目的15%,则不需要受到如此苛刻的要求(见 Section 5和6)

SECTION 4. TRANSPARENCY FOR AND PROHIBITING PENALTIES AGAINST FOREIGN HIGH- SKILLED WORKERS
 Provides for transparency for H-1B workers by requiring employers to provide immigration paperwork to the H-1B visa holder within three years of the date on which the petition was filed with the government. Provides for the withholding of information if it is confidential or sensitive business information.
 Protects H-1B workers by prohibiting liquidated damages for H-1B workers who cease employment prior to a date agreed to by the nonimmigrant and the employer.

以上是说要保护拿H-1B的员工,免受欺诈:1)雇主必须在三年之内为已经取得H-1B签证的员工提供申请(绿卡)移民的文件,如果这些文件可能泄露机密的工作性质,可以省略有关字眼;2)禁止雇主向H-1B持有人索取赔偿,即使该雇员在双方同意的雇佣期期满前辞职。

解读:不许雇主把H-1B雇员扣留成为血汗劳工,必须为他们在三年内提供办绿卡的文件。yay!

SECTION 5. REFORMING THE PREVAILING WAGE SYSTEM TO PROTECT AMERICAN WORKERS
 Increases prevailing wage requirements to protect U.S. workers by replacing the current 4-level wage calculation with a new, more balanced 3-level wage formula.



以上是说为了保护美国本地工人,要提高Prevailing Wages的算法,除去了最低档次的那级“普遍工资”的算法。剩下的三档工资水平:“高档普遍工资水平”(Level 3)的算法是取本地普遍工资调查结果的中上层作为标准。“中档普遍工资水平”的算法是取工资调查结果的中值为标准。“低档普遍工资水平”的算法取工资调查结果的低下层作为标准。

这些算法用作审批H-1B颁发的优先权的评估指标。


“SECTION 6. MARKET-BASED H-1B VISA ALLOCATION
 Prioritizes allocation of H-1B visas based on wages as follows:
o Employers paying prevailing wage level 3 at 200% of prevailing wage, then 150% of prevailing wage
(including cash bonuses and similar compensation);
o Employers paying level 2 at 200% of prevailing wage, then 150% of prevailing wage (including cash
bonuses and similar compensation);
o Employers paying level 1 at 200% of prevailing wage, then 150% of prevailing wage (including cash
bonuses and similar compensation); o Any remaining petitions.
 Requires that if employers have beneficiaries work 30 days or more in an area of employment other than the one indicated at the time of filing, they must pay the prevailing wage of the area of employment with the highest prevailing wage at the same wage level indicated at filing.
 Tightens employee protection by stipulating that employers may not reduce beneficiary wages, regardless of whether the deduction is in accordance with a voluntary authorization by the employee. Makes exceptions for taxes, garnishments, and deductions that are reasonable and customary in the occupation.”

以上是说,要按照雇主计算Prevailing Wages的算法,而由高到低依次分配H-1B签证给用高档、中档和低挡计算工资的雇主:1)H-1B签证将首先考虑颁发给按“高档普遍工资”算法计算外籍雇员工资的雇主,并从中再看哪个雇主能支付“高档普遍工资”的多少倍,2倍还是1.5倍还是1倍,而决定最先颁发给哪一个外国雇员。2)其次考虑按“中档普遍工资”算法计算工资的申请人,3)最后才考虑按“低档普遍工资”计算的申请人。

譬如,如果甲乙丙丁四个雇主:
甲雇主采用“高档普遍工资水平”的算法,算出工资水平是$10万。这雇主慷慨花了这算法两倍的工资,即年薪$20万,雇佣了A同学。同时,甲雇主也请了B同学,人工是$10万,达到高档的水平。

乙雇主按“中档普遍工资水平”的算法,算出工资水平是$9万。他请了C同学,人工为$11万,D同学人工为$9万。

丙雇主按“低档普遍工资水平”的算法,算出工资水平是$8万。他请了E同学,人工为$12万,F同学,人工是$8万。

那么在这个草案提议的新规定下,H1B的颁发顺序是什么呢?

不是你想象的A、E、C、B、D、F,而是:
A、B、C、D、E、F。鼓励雇主按比平均工资水平高的高档方式计算外籍技术人员的人工,并鼓励支付比本地人要高的工资。





SECTION 7. VISAS RESERVED FOR SMALL AND START-UP EMPLOYERS  Sets aside 20% of the annual allocation of H-1B visas for small and start-up employers (those with 50 or fewer employees).  Petitions filed under this subsection must include an attestation from the petitioner that the beneficiary will not be placed for more than 30 days at a third party worksite.

以上是说:要预留20%的H-1B签证给不多于50人的小公司和起步公司。这些报名者必须证明自己不会为此雇主以外的其他公司工作超过三十天。 解读:让小公司也有机会争取得到H-1B人才,但同时要避免外包公司开办假的小公司“贩卖”人才到大公司。

SECTION 8. REMOVING VISA HURDLES FOR STUDENTS AND OTHER TEMPORARY VISA HOLDERS.  Builds a bridge from F-1 student status to Lawful Permanent Residence by: 
o Providing for “dual intent” for students, as well as O-1 (Extraordinary Ability), P (Athletes, Artists, and Entertainers) and free trade visa holders, so they are not denied visas solely on the basis that they might intend to immigrate to the United States;
Permitting experience gained on the job with the employer to count for the purposes of labor certification; and

o Providing employment and travel authorization to those with approved employment-based petitions awaiting visa availability, so they have similar protections to those provided portability under the American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act. 



以上说:为F-1(学生)、O-1(卓越能力者)、P(体育家)、和自由贸易者签证建造一条转正身份的途径,允许这些签证持有人带有“双重倾向”,而不会因为有移民美国的倾向而被拒绝回美签证。 并允许在实习期间得到的工作经验算作将来申请工作签证时的劳工认证。也允许申报工作签证的这几类人士,在工作签证批准了但还没有收到之前出国旅游。

解读:以前拥有这些身份的同学们的签证是一次性的 - 持着F-1签证入境后,身份就会变成 F-1 Status,而不再拥有F-1Visa,失去了出入境的自由。如果离开美国返家探亲,再来美国的时候要重新申请签证。如果万一答辩不顺,被驻华的美国领事馆移民官认为有移民倾向,就无法回美完成学业。所以以前许多学生要不不回家,要不先去加拿大绕个圈取了新签证,而利用加拿大进入美国国境不需要展示签证这个loophole,省下一个宝贵的F-1签证留到探亲的时候用。 所以,这个新提案如果通过,将是这些留学生和杰出人士的福音。


以上说:为F-1(学生)、O-1(卓越能力者)、P(体育家)、和自由贸易者签证建造一条转正身份的途径,允许这些签证持有人带有“双重倾向”,而不会因为有移民美国的倾向而被拒绝回美签证。 解读:以前拥有这些身份的同学们的签证是一次性的 - 持着F-1签证入境后,身份就会变成 F-1 Status,而不再拥有F-1Visa,失去了出入境的自由。如果离开美国返家探亲,再来美国的时候要重新申请签证,如果万一答辩不顺,被驻华的美国领事馆移民官认为有移民倾向,就无法回美完成学业。所以以前许多学生要不不回家,要不先去加拿大绕个圈取了新签证,而利用加拿大进入美国国境不需要展示签证这个loophole,省下一个宝贵的F-1签证留到探亲的时候用。 所以,这个新提案如果通过,将是这些留学生和杰出人士的福音。

如果这个草案能成法律,那么F1学生签证可以回家探亲;H1B三年后可以转绿卡,不必永远被雇主用作廉价奴隶;亲属移民名额提高,有助父母移民;砍掉了H1B多中间商,华人得到H1B的机会大了。但是就是H1B的人工起点高了。 

同学们如果聪明的话,先在湾区大公司实习一年,再跑去穷乡僻壤申请H1B和绿卡,就容易拿到比当地人高的人工,因为山中无老虎。如果更聪明的,应该读完硕士生,那么人工起点更高,要beat 当地平均工资 10%-20%不是那么难,只需要用“上马对中马”🐎的技巧!还有,千万现在就开始学习口语,能到达随便吹水的地步就非常好,见工就有advantage。我觉得同学们技术绝对过关,就是口语和文化,能否自然地谈small talk的能力,就是那条起跑线了。